Roger Schank (Stanford) defined conceptual dependency model for natural language understanding.Later developed (in Ph D dissertations at Yale University) for use in story understanding by Robert Wilensky and Wendy Lehnert, and for use in understanding memory by Janet Kolodner.
by discovering the true nature of the gods, man has been able to reproduce it." Mosaic law prohibits the use of automatons in religion.
Ramon Llull, Spanish theologian invents the Ars Magna, a tool for combining concepts mechanically, based on an Arabic astrological tool, the Zairja.
He referred to Kurt Gödel's result of 1931: sufficiently powerful formal systems are either inconsistent or allow for formulating true theorems unprovable by any theorem-proving AI deriving all provable theorems from the axioms.
Since humans are able to "see" the truth of such theorems, machines were deemed inferior.
Teddington Conference on the Mechanization of Thought Processes was held in the UK and among the papers presented were John Mc Carthy's Programs with Common Sense, Oliver Selfridge's Pandemonium, and Marvin Minsky's Some Methods of Heuristic Programming and Artificial Intelligence.
denied the possibility of machine intelligence on logical or philosophical grounds.
Leonard Uhr and Charles Vossler published "A Pattern Recognition Program That Generates, Evaluates, and Adjusts Its Own Operators", which described one of the first machine learning programs that could adaptively acquire and modify features and thereby overcome the limitations of simple perceptrons of Rosenblatt Joseph Weizenbaum (MIT) built ELIZA, an interactive program that carries on a dialogue in English language on any topic.
It was a popular toy at AI centers on the ARPANET when a version that "simulated" the dialogue of a psychotherapist was programmed.
This will be the first of five unsuccessful attempts at designing a direct entry calculating clock in the 17th century (including the designs of Tito Burattini, Samuel Morland and René Grillet)).
Gottfried Leibniz improved the earlier machines, making the Stepped Reckoner to do multiplication and division.
The first working AI programs were written in 1951 to run on the Ferranti Mark 1 machine of the University of Manchester: a checkers-playing program written by Christopher Strachey and a chess-playing program written by Dietrich Prinz. Simon (Carnegie Institute of Technology, now [[Carnegie Mellon University] or CMU]).