The question whether the Indian Constitution could be called a federal constitution troubled the minds of the members of the Constituent Assembly.
In other words, Governor is the agent of the Centre in the States.
The working of Indian federal system clearly reveals that the Governor has acted more as centre’s representative than as the head of the State.
Supremacy of judiciary is another very important feature of a federal state where there is an independent judiciary to interpret the Constitution and to maintain its sanctity.
The Supreme Court of India has the original jurisdiction to settle disputes between the Union and the States.
In a true federation such as that of United State of America every State irrespective of their size in terms of area or population it sends two representatives in the upper House i.e. In addition to all this, all important appointments such as the Chief Election Commissioner, the Comptroller and Auditor General are made by the Union Government. There is no provision for separate Constitutions for the states.
The States cannot propose amendments to, the Constitution.
In Indian constitution the powers of state and centre are clearly defined and there are very clear limits of both the centre and the state for law making powers. The State List consists of 66 subjects of local interest such as Public Health, Police etc.
The Concurrent List has 47 subjects important to both the Union and the State such as Electricity, Trade Union, Economic and Social Planning, etc.
Such an amendment has to be passed by majority of total members of each house of the Parliament as well as by two-thirds majority of the members present and voting there in.